El efecto de los aminoglucósidos sobre la transferencia horizontal de genes en Klebsiella pneumoniae

Palabras clave: Klebsiella pneumoniae; Transferencia horizontal de genes; Resistencia a antibióticos, aminoglucósidos.

Resumen

Las bacterias resistentes a antibióticos representan un riesgo global para la salud pública. La transferencia horizontal de genes, que permite el intercambio de material genético en bacterias, tiene un papel importante en la adquisición de genes de resistencia. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de concentraciones subletales de antibióticos en la transferencia de plásmidos por conjugación y transformación en el patógeno oportunista Klebsiella pneumoniae. Aunque esta bacteria no es naturalmente competente, mostró capacidad para adquirir ADN extracelular de diversos plásmidos con muy baja frecuencia, la cual aumentó al incubar células con los antibióticos aminoglucósidos amikacina y gentamicina. La transferencia por conjugación, que se hizo con un aislamiento clínico portador del plásmido pNDM-1, también aumentó en presencia de concentraciones subletales de antibióticos. Un análisis de RNA- Seq evidenció la expresión diferencial de varios genes al incubar células en presencia de concentraciones subletales de amikacina, lo que indica cambios metabólicos, regulatorios y a nivel de componentes de la envoltura celular. Estos resultados revelan que la incubación en concentraciones subletales de algunos aminoglucósidos, en particular la amikacina, pueden alterar las propiedades celulares y promover la transferencia de elementos genéticos portadores de resistencias en K. pneumoniae, lo cual tiene relevancia para entender la diseminación de genes de resistencia en este patógeno humano.

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Publicado
2020-03-16
Cómo citar
Acosta, I. C., Posada, L., Huertas, M. G., & Zambrano Eder, M. M. (2020). El efecto de los aminoglucósidos sobre la transferencia horizontal de genes en Klebsiella pneumoniae. Revista De La Academia Colombiana De Ciencias Exactas, Físicas Y Naturales, 44(170), 105-120. https://doi.org/10.18257/raccefyn.985
Sección
Ciencias biomédicas