DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18257/raccefyn.549

Artículo de posesión

El papel de la membrana mitocondrial externa en el control del metabolismo energético celular

Viktor V. Lemeshko

Resumen


Hasta 95 % de la energía en las células eucariotas se produce en las mitocondrias, las cuales se componen de dos membranas, la interna y la externa. La principal función de la membrana interna es la fosforilación oxidativa. El trifosfato de adenosina (adenosine triphosphate, ATP) y el fosfato de creatina, producidos en las mitocondrias, se transfieren al citosol atravesando la membrana mitocondrial externa, básicamente a través de las porinas (voltagedependent anion cannel, VDAC). Dado que los mecanismos de generación del potencial eléctrico en esta membrana se desconocen, generalmente se asume que la compuerta eléctrica de los VDAC siempre está abierta. Sin embargo, el potencial de la membrana mitocondrial externa puede generarse de manera dependiente del metabolismo energético celular mediante diversos mecanismos. La generación de dicho potencial mediante los complejos VDAC-hexocinasa en las células cancerígenas, o la oxidación directa del NADH citosólico en las mitocondrias de la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae permiten explicar los efectos de Crabtree y Warburg como una supresión eléctrica de las mitocondrias. Según el modelo desarrollado, la prevención de la formación de los complejos VDAC-hexocinasa por acción de algunos factores podría causar efectos anti-Warburg y anticancerígenos. Además, este potencial positivo generado por los complejos VDAC-creatina-cinasa podría proteger las mitocondrias de los cardiomiocitos y de otras células frente a los niveles tóxicos de calcio en el citosol. Los mecanismos propuestos de generación del potencial de la membrana dependiente del metabolismo energético celular, sugieren que las propiedades eléctricas del VDAC tienen un papel importante en varios procesos fisiológicos y patofisiológicos. © 2018. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Ex. Fis. Nat.

Palabras clave


Membrana externa mitocondrial; VDAC; Potencial de membrana; Levadura; Cáncer; Corazón.

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Referencias


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