DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18257/raccefyn.408

Artículo de posesión

Estrategias de investigación para el tratamiento de Alzheimer con antioxidantes polifenólicos

Ligia Sierra

Resumen


Esta revisión comprende una descripción de los mecanismos propuestos para explicar el desarrollo de la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) y de las estrategias para su  tratamiento a la luz de estos mecanismos, enfatizando la utilización de compuestos polifenólicos como agentes terapéuticos. Se analizan los efectos de especies reactivas de oxígeno ROS y presencia de metales redox en el desarrollo de EA y las estrategias de tratamiento, basadas en la actividad antioxidante y quelante de un medicamento y en sus alcances a través de vías de señalización. Dada la importancia de los polifenoles tipo flavonoides para el tratamiento de EA, se tienen en cuenta ejemplos con el flavonoide (-)-epigalocatequin-3-galato (EGCG), perteneciente a la familia de las catequinas. Es importante estudiar como intervienen los polifenoles a nivel celular (rol de su estructura química en la interacción con la célula y en su actividad biológica) con el fin de modular la interacción y las vías de señalización para lograr los efectos neurotróficos esperados. Los efectos in vitro, frecuentemente no corresponden a aquellos in vivo, dado que diferencias en concentraciones y condiciones de estudio hacen que las actividades química y biológica de un medicamento varíen. Esto puede ser debido en parte a la necesidad de un ajuste en concentraciones y tiempo entre los estudios pre clínicos  y clínicos. Por otra parte, métodos de liberación eficientes deben ser investigados, teniendo en cuenta que un agente terapéutico para enfermedades neurológicas debería cruzar la barrera sanguínea-cerebral. La nanotecnología basada en sistemas de liberación controlada de medicamentos puede superar estas limitaciones. © 2016. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Ex. Fis. Nat. Todos los derechos reservados.

Palabras clave


Enfermedad de Alzheimer; placas amiloide; marañas tau; compuestos polifenólicos; vías de señalización; liberación controlada de medicamentos.

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