Artículo original

Conjuntos de holobiontes de especies dominantes de corales (Tipos de Symbiodinium y especies de corales) moldean la estructura comunitaria en arrecifes coralinos del Caribe.

Alejandro Grajales, Juan Armando Sanchez

Resumen


Investigaciones de la estructura de comunidades coralinas sugieren que escalas espacio temporales cortas son responsables de patrones en ecosistemas marinos tropicales. La combinación coral y su zooxantela, u holobionte, puede ser la entidad ecológica modificada por estos factores. La estructura de la comunidad de corales podría ser mejor entendida usando el holobionte como unidad indivisible de la comunidad. Investigaciones recientes en diversidad de zooxantelas (Symbiodiniumspp.) han revelado asociaciones de tipo específicas, así como generalistas dependiendo del hospedero. Su distribución depende tanto del hospedero como de las condiciones ambientales. Este estudio determino la identidad molecular de estos simbiontes en comunidades de corales duros (Scleractinia y Milleporina) en 27 localidades en el talud arrecifal superior (zona mixta) en Cartagena, Colombia. La identificación de zooxantelas se realizó mediante análisis de RFLPs (18S, SSU, rDNA, por sus siglas en inglés), DGGE y secuenciación de ADN (ITS2, rDNA). Se encontró variación intra e intercolonial, dependiendo de la especie del hospedero. Se determinaron diferentes holobiontes, como diferentes unidades ecológicas. Estas unidades correspondían a una minoría en la diversidad de especies, pero dominantes (p.ej., Orbicella spp.). Tomando cada holobionte como variable, se realizó un análisis de la estructura comunitaria y fue comparado con un análisis tomando solamente las especies de coral. Mayores similitudes entre estaciones se encontraron cuando se usaron los holobiontes. Las especies dominantes O. annularisy O. faveolata formaron en cada caso diferentes holobiontes, dependiendo de la profundidad. La preferencia hacia un tipo específico de zooxantela podría estar bajo mayor presión selectiva de lo que anteriormente se pensaba. © 2016. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Ex. Fis. Nat. Todos los derechos reservados.

Palabras clave


Zooxantelas; Estructura de comunidad; Holobionte; Mar Caribe; Arrecifes de coral; Symbiodinium; Scleractini.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18257/raccefyn.294

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