DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18257/raccefyn.141

Artículo de revisión

El impacto de la deforestación en la erosión de la cuenca del río Magdalena (1980-2010)

Juan D. Restrepo A.

Resumen


En la última década, la cuenca del río Magdalena ha experimentado un incremento en las tasas de erosión del orden del 34 %, pasando de 550 t km-2 a-1antes del año 2000 a 710 t km-2 a-1 en el periodo 2000-2010, con un aumento en el transporte total de sedimentos de 44 Mt a-1. El análisis de la variabilidad espacial de la producción de sedimentos indica que el 78 % de la cuenca se encuentra en estado crítico de erosión dada la pérdida de bosques primarios de más del 60 % en el periodo entre 1980 y 2010. Mediante la calibración del modelo BQART para el periodo de 1980 a 2010, que combina variables climáticas, hidrológicas, litológicas, morfométricas y del impacto humano por deforestación, se explicó el 86 % de la variabilidad del transporte de sedimentos en la cuenca. El 9 % del transporte de sedimentos acumulado de las tres últimas décadas se debió a la deforestación; cerca de 160 Mt de sedimentos se han generados por la deforestación entre el 2000 y el 2010. Los indicadores económicos del Magdalena en las seis últimas décadas señalan que las actividades agrícolas fueron la principal causa del cambio en el uso de los suelos y de la pérdida forestal. El deterioro de los suelos de la cuenca requiere de medidas a escala regional, y no solamente de planes de mitigación ante el cambio climático.


Palabras clave


Río Magdalena, deforestación, transporte de sedimentos, erosión

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Referencias


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